The unrest was deemed severe enough by the government that President Rutherford B. Hayes intervened with federal troops. During the 1880s and 1890s, the Republicans struggled against the Democrats' efforts, winning several close elections and losing two to Grover Cleveland (in 1884 and 1892). , The most hated railroad man in the country was Collis P. Huntington (1821–1900), the president of the Southern Pacific Railroad who dominated California's economy and politics. The new immigrants who arrived after 1890 seldom voted at this time. Few people, however, agreed with the social Darwinists, because they ridiculed religion and denounced philanthropy. Wealthy industrialists and financiers such as John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, Henry Clay Frick, Andrew W. Mellon, Andrew Carnegie, Henry Flagler, Henry H. Rogers, J. P. Morgan, Leland Stanford, Meyer Guggenheim, Jacob Schiff, Charles Crocker, Cornelius Vanderbilt would sometimes be labeled "robber barons" by their critics, who argue their fortunes were made at the expense of the working class, by chicanery and a betrayal of democracy. Gilded Age Reform. Travel from New York to San Francisco now took six days instead of six months. , But there was also a dark side. Millionaire's Row In less than 25 years, America's brand-new millionaires like Vanderbilt, Astor and Carnegie turned New York City's Fifth Avenue from a rutted, dirt road into a … Anti-black violence, lynchings, segregation, legal racial discrimination, and expressions of white supremacy increased. Travel became much easier, cheaper, and more common.  By the 1870s, railroads were vilified by Western farmers who absorbed the Granger movement theme that monopolistic carriers controlled too much pricing power, and that the state legislatures had to impose maximum prices. In 1893, both the overextended Philadelphia and Reading Railroad and the National Cordage Company failed, which set off an economic depression unlike any seen before in America. Writers of many types of works contributed to a great body of literature that flourished between the Civil War and 1914—literature of social revolt. The teaching profession had once been heavily male, but as schooling expanded many women took on teaching careers. By the end of the century, American cities boasted 30 million square yards of asphalt paving, followed by brick construction. , Many of the White farmers, and most of the Blacks, were tenant farmers who owned their work animals and tools, and rented the land. The railroads advertised heavily in Europe and brought over, at low fares, hundreds of thousands of farmers from Germany, Scandinavia and Britain. By the late 19th century, the Irish communities had largely stabilized, with a strong new "lace curtain" middle-class of local businessmen, professionals, and political leaders typified by P. J. Kennedy (1858–1929) in Boston. Congress, the Presidents, and the Courts looked favorably on this new growth. The Gilded Age and the Second Industrial Revolution. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.  According to historian Steve Fraser, workers generally earned less than $800 a year, which kept them mired in poverty. For the HBO TV drama, see, Love-hate relationship with the railroads, Ethnocultural politics: pietistic Republicans versus liturgical Democrats. This productive but divisive era was followed by the Progressive Era.