The Bohemian phase from 1618 to 1625 was sparked by the defenestration of Prague. 30 years war DRAFT. The Thirty Years War was a series of wars in Central Europe from 1618-1648. Huge mercenary armies did not so much fight strategic battles as constantly maneuver, plunder, and forage, all the while collecting wages of death. The final stage of the Thirty Years War began. Alsace also fell to Bernard and when he died in July 19639, his army came under the direct control of the French. It was commonly thought that Richelieu would be dismissed as a sop to the Cardinal-Infante but Louis XIII stood by him and asked Parisians to be patriotic and supply money to the government in the defence of Paris. The Bohemian Phase was the start of the 30 Years war. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The French Phase; The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) Right after the defenestration of Prague the fighting begins between the Catho- lics and Protestants. The History Learning Site, 25 Mar 2015. Like any new emperor or king, Ferdinand had to proved himself but his start was less than auspicious. These include the Bohemian Phase, the Danish Phase, The Swedish Phase and the French Phase. The Spanish themselves were also experiencing problems at home. Granted, the French had a bit of help from the Swedes, who had switched roles from fighter to financier. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. https://great-home-decorations.com/the-30-years-war-catholics-vs-protestants 462 times. Louis XIII was simply pre-empting the inevitable : attack before France itself was attacked. And most raids achieved little because of an abiding inability to supply mid-17th century armies on the move and the inherent superiority of fortified defenses. Barbarossa to ‘Berlog’ – Soviet Air Force, Rome Military mid-fourth century to the mid-third century BC, Rommel Recaptures Cyrenaica, January 1942, Russian Weapons, that are currently in service…, A Lesson of History: The Luftwaffe and Barbarossa. Besides, France and Spain had fought an undeclared but bitter frontier war for years in northern Italy and along the Spanish Road, even after the formal end of the Mantuan war in 1631. … The Winter King: Frederick V of the Palatinate and the Coming of the Thirty Years' War by Brennan C. … What participation France had committed herself to involved just diplomatic and political measures. The Cardinal failed to maintain his push and he too was pushed back from Paris. With this internal disruption, France could not follow a more aggressive foreign policy. He was later taken hostage by his own men, who demanded all pay in arrears. He was later taken hostage by his own men, who demanded all pay in arrears. Spanish troops attacked the French in Trier in March 1635 (taking the archbishop prisoner), in an effort to establish an alternative route to the Spanish Road, which had been cut by France. The Causes of the Thirty Years War 1618-48 The Thirty Years War consistently features on lists of major conflicts in world history. The Catalonians also rebelled against the domination of Castille in Spanish politics and a joint Catalan-French army defeated the Castillians outside of Barcelona in January 1641. The Thirty Years War. Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé (8 September 1621 – 11 December 1686). The Battle of Torgau forced the Swedes back to Pomerania and the Swedes could only stay in the field thanks to the financial aid given to them by the French in the Treaty of Hamburg of 1638. It did not enter the war as a Catholic power, as Richelieu had already signed offensive treaties with Protestant Sweden and the Netherlands in expectation of fighting Catholic Austria and Spain. Sweden wanted to gain more territory to pay for her expenses up to the Peace and she decided to carry on fighting. King Philip IV of Spain agreed to the marriage Its distal causes reside in the previous century, at the political-religious settlement of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Peace of Augsburg. From September 1640 to October 1641, the full Imperial Diet met for the first time since 1613, to work out the negotiating positions of the Empire for any future peace talks. 30 seconds . France in the mid-1630’s was fearful of a strong and unchallenged Holy Roman Empire. To sustain the above, Richelieu needed favourable finances. In April 1635, Sweden and France signed the Treaty of Compiegne. The majority of the citizens from the Bohemian Kingdom were Protestants. Over a four-year period, the warring parties of the Thirty Years’ War (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. This was due to the inability of burned and eaten out farms or serially extorted and depopulated towns to sustain relentless demands for contributions to maintain forces on the huge scale seen earlier under Wallenstein and Gustavus. Gallas had to leave the French campaign and confront the Swedes. Regardless of the defeat at Torgau, Sweden marched into Bohemia and reached the suburbs of Prague. ( Log Out / The military prospects of France were not good. The Thirty Years' War was a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Germany.It originated in the commingling of politics and religion that was common in Europe at the time. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! France also had success in north Italy where Bernard of Weimar successfully besieged Breisach after defeating the Holy Roman Empire’s army at Rheinfelden. It started as a conflict between Protestant and Catholic states following the fragmenting of the Holy Roman Empire, but it turned into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe, becoming a war for European political pre-eminence.. The United Provinces also added to the misery of the Holy Roman Empire. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). France had to endure a three-pronged attack. The Thirty years war was made up of many different wars, to understand it better I will be grouping them into 4 phases. The Cardinal-Infante attacked through Picardy. 10th - 11th grade. Tags: Question 8 . The Peace of Westphalia (24 October 1648), which ended the war, saw Hapsburg power much reduced. Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. France was also out-of-touch with the more modern methods of fighting that were coming to the surface in the Thirty Years War. Though a German state, Trier had been under French protection since 1631. Play this game to review World History. The French Huguenot general, Rohan, was sent to help the Swiss Protestants in a campaign to overthrow the Valtelline. In February 1635, France had provided the Dutch with 20,000 men to deploy as the Dutch saw fit. In the early months on 1635, France have vacillated over a wholesale military involvement in Europe. Thirty Years’ War – French Phase, 1635–1648 Posted on May 29, 2016 Gustavus’ councillor Oxenstierna replaced him in the field in Germany but lost badly at First Nördlingen (September 5–6, 1634). It was not until the early 1640s that France settled on sound commanders and fielded well-trained armies capable of winning the war. Despite defeating the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi in May 1643, France was unable to mount a serious campaign in Europe as military exhaustion had broken out throughout Europe. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. French military involvement in the Thirty Years War got off to a poor start. In October 1639, the Dutch had beaten a Spanish fleet at the Battle of the Downs. The Peace of Prague, arranged on Ferdinand’s terms, alarmed France, Sweden and the United Provinces. The Swedes followed up with a victory over the Saxons at Chemnitz (April 14, 1638) and occupation of Bohemia. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died. During these last years, given the strength of fortified defenses and the still unsolved problems of mid-17th century logistics, deep cavalry raiding was about the most either side could undertake. Thanks to Xios, Alan Haskayne, Lachlan Lindenmayer, William Crabb, Derpvic, Seth Reeves and all my other Patrons. The new phase saw the German war expanded into an international conflict. Change ). The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties, … Bernard of Weimar pushed back Gallas and the attack by Phillip IV failed to materialise. After the recent victory of the Catholics, Denmark felt that it's sovereignty as a Protestant country would be threatened. 21 Feb 2021. Sweden did not recover from this debacle for several years. 1618-21 Bohemian Revolt; 1621-24 Palatinate phase; 1625-29 Danish intervention; 1630-35 Swedish intervention; 1636-48 French intervention; The following Timeline just lists the major battles. It was greatly aided by the cracking of Habsburg power occasioned by the revolt of Catalonia and another in Portugal in 1640. The Thirty Years' War was a conflict primarily fought in Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. This Regency was lead by Anne of Austria, the Queen Mother, and the Italian, Mazarin. In 1618 the Peace of Augsburg unraveled and war broke out: Term. The French war against Spain continued until 1659, when the Treaty of the Pyrenees awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands and some territory in northern Spain. In January 1640, a combined Spanish and Portuguese fleet had been beaten at the Battle of Pernambuco, again by the Dutch. 11. The stratagem failed: on May 19, 1635, France declared war only on Spain. They loot Germany who can't fight back and loose 1/3 of their population. With each successive phase, the war became more continental in scope, bloodier, and more focused on political power than religion. They believed that if the Dutch were seen by the Holy Roman Empire to be getting involved militarily in the conflict, it could lead to an invasion of the United Provinces by a Imperial army and that could spell disaster for the Dutch economy. The Thirty Years War was the last religious war in Europe, and was also the bloodiest war to affect the continent before the twentieth century. Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a duke of the Holy Roman Empire. Though it got off to a poor start, the French army would eventually drive Spanish and Austrian armies back across German states. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. In the autumn of 1636 they were summoned to Regensburg by, In October 1636, the Holy Roman Empire’s army had been defeated by the Swedes at Wittstock in Brandenburg. An Imperial army lead by Gallas attacked through the Vosges and Phillip IV of Spain lead an attack from the South. France, therefore, needed alliances. Troops of the Holy Roman Empire and Bavari commanded by Baron Tilly, invaded Bohemia. 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